World War II Army Flight Nurses – 1 Aug 2020

 In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Sara Ann Jones Sharp (1915–2002)
812 MAES, Pacific

Sally (Sara Ann) Sharp née JONES (Temple University School of Nursing, Philadelphia, 1936) worked initially at Mount Sinai Hospital, then at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital after earning her nursing diploma, followed by private duty nursing for several years. During that time she was a member of the Civilian Air Patrol. When war was declared, Jones entered the Army, but ‘went with the Air Force’, because she wanted to be a flight nurse. Her first assignment was at a station hospital in Richmond, VA. Eight months later she was sent to Bowman Field, KY for flight nurse training, graduating on 1 October 1943. Jones was a squadron mate of Jo Nabors and Elizabeth Pukas in the 812 MAES assigned to the Pacific.

For Sally, who was a pragmatist, flight nursing was ‘just a job to be done’ – but one she enjoyed. She was ‘absolutely’ glad she’d made that decision. One of her flights out of Saipan was featured in ‘Flight for Life’, written by Patricia Lochridge for Woman’s Home Companion in January 1945. At the end of the war, Sally had hoped to fly into Japan to bring out the POWs as a fitting conclusion to her flight nurse duties overseas, but the nurses in her squadron were told that they had been flying long enough. New flight nurses made the coveted trips instead, while Sally and her squadron mates waited in Hawaii for orders returning them to the States. Sally died in 2002 at age 87.

 

To listen to my interview with Sally Sharp, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011358

Interviewed 21 May 1986, Winter Park, FL
Learn more about my interview with Sally on the Blog for 2 Apr 2016.

To be continued

 

 

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 18 Jul 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Mary Newbeck Christian (1915–2012)
805 MAES, Alaska

Mary Eileen Christian née NEWBECK (Providence Hospital School of Nursing, Detroit, 1937) worked as a hospital nurse in surgery, and eventually as an industrial nurse after her graduation from nursing school in 1937. During that time she was a member of the Aerial Nurse Corps of America, a civilian flight nurse organization founded by Ohio pilot Lauretta Schimmoler, with a chapter in Detroit. Because of that experience, Newbeck entered the military with the understanding that she would go to flight nurse training and was in the first class of nurses to graduate from formal training at Bowman Field, KY on 18 February 1943.

A pleasant surprise awaited Lieutenant Newbeck at Bowman Field – two former ANCOA members from Detroit Company A were on base. Captain Leora Stroup, the former Company Commander, was now director of flight nurse training for the Army Air Forces School of Air Evacuation, and Lieutenant Margaret Gudobba was in the second class of flight nurses that graduated on 26 March 1943. The local Louisville Courier-Journal of 2 March 1943, always eager for details about the flight nurses, made much of the “Three Aerial Nurse Pioneers Reunited At Bowman Field”.

Eileen Newbeck (far left) with Leora Stroup and Margaret Gudobba, all former ANCOA nurses, at Bowman Field. [AMEDD Photo]

After flight nurse training, Newbeck was assigned to the 805 MAES with duty station in Alaska. She was delighted with her assignment, for she always had wanted to see Alaska, and Uncle Sam had paid for the trip. And best of all, she said, she met her husband there. Mary died in 2016 at age 97.

 

To listen to my interview with Mary Christian, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011343

 

Interviewed 21 May 1986, St. Petersburg, FL
Learn more about my interview with Mary on the Blog for 10 Mar 2016.

To be continued

 

 

 

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 28 Jun 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Dorothy Vancil Morgan (1911–2000)
805 MAES, Central Africa

Dorothy Morgan née VANCIL (Deaconess Hospital School of Nursing, Wenatchee, Washington, 1936) did some private duty nursing after completing her nurse training, moved to Seattle, and worked in different types of nursing before taking a job at a railroad hospital in Alaska. On her voyage by ship from Alaska back to Washington State, Pearl Harbor was attacked. Vancil applied to the military as soon as she returned to the US but had to take a three-month course in pediatrics before she was accepted for military duty in 1942. Her first assignment was at Hamilton Field, CA, where she heard about air evacuation, applied for flight nurse training, and reported to Bowman Field, KY in the fall of 1943, a year after entering the military. She graduated from the flight nurse course with Lee Holtz, Adele Edmunds, and Sally Sharp on 26 November 1943 and was assigned to the 805 MAES with duty in Central Africa, where she flew patients to Brazil.

Dorothy’s most vivid memories of flight nursing overseas were of the contrasting colors, the musical sounds of the grass cutters with their scythes, and the smells – the odors – of Africa. She had gone overseas with such thoughts about how she was going to be Florence Nightingale, Dorothy said, and found that she spent much of her time providing moral support to her patients, “which meant a lot to them”.  When her tour of duty was up in Africa, Dorothy flew on stateside air evac missions. She left the military after the war and joined the Reserves. Married to a flight surgeon by then, Dorothy decided not to return to active duty for the Korean War. She died in 2016 at age 88.

 

To listen to my interview with Dorothy Morgan, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011351

Interviewed 15 May 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Dorothy Morgan on the Blog for 22 Feb 2016.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 6 Jun 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Jenevieve Silk née BOYLE (1920–2017)
816 MAES, Europe

Jenny (Jenevieve) Silk née BOYLE (Milwaukee County Hospital School of Nursing, 1942) arrived at Jefferson Barracks, MO around the same time as Denny Nagle and Ethel Cerasale. Because in Wisconsin “nurses were a dime a dozen”, Boyle was afraid she would not find work after receiving her nurses diploma, but was asked to stay on at the hospital where she trained. She worked in clean surgery for women for a year before going into the service. Boyle knew nothing about military life, but she heard on the radio that the Army Air Corps Surgeon General’s office wanted flight nurses. She did not really know what a flight nurse was, except that the job would involve flying in airplanes. “It was something completely new, but, you know, at age 23, I was ready for a new adventure,” she said. Boyle, Nagle, and Cerasale all were sent within their first year of military service to Bowman Field, KY for the flight nurse course and graduated on 21 January 1944. Boyle was assigned to the 816 MAES for duty in England in preparation for D Day. Her most riveting memory of her first trip across the Channel to pick up patients for air evac – worse than losing an engine or ground looping – was the sight of “hundreds of dead young men laid out with parachutes over them”. It made a lasting impression, but Jenny thought the war was necessary.

Jenny mentioned that she hadn’t had occasion to talk about her years as a flight nurse in World War II because no one had asked her about that time of her life in about 40 years. Although she agreed to the interview, she discounted any possible contributions she could make to my study of how nurses cope with war or even to a history of flight nursing in World War II. Jenny needed more reassurance and guidance than other women I’d interviewed, but what she did talk about, especially spontaneously, was valuable. Jenny was intelligent, eloquent, and articulate, as when she shared her stark realization that “no matter how right you are or how wrong you are in your endeavor for the war”, so many soldiers had died. She didn’t dwell on it, but she still saw that scene in Normandy so many years later. Jenny died in 2017 at age 97.

 

To listen to my interview with Jenny Silk, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011357

Interviewed 8 May 1986, Tequesta, FL
Learn more about my interview with Jenny on the Blog for 22 Nov 2016.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 16 May 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Ethel Cerasale née CARLSON (1921–1998)
815 MAES, Europe

When Ethel Cerasale née CARLSON (Englewood Hospital School of Nursing, Chicago, 1942) saw the Army nurse who came to her nursing school to recruit nurses for the military, the “gorgeous … absolutely the most beautiful” uniform made an immediate impression on her. Carlson already knew she wanted to be a flight nurse, and she heard that if she applied for military service through the Red Cross Reserve, they would help her find the type of duty she wanted. She graduated from nursing school in 1942, gave the Red Cross her application in February 1943, joined the Army, and two months later was sent to Jefferson Barracks, an Army post near St. Louis. She was selected for flight nurse training at Bowman Field, KY and graduated from the course on 21 January 1944 with assignment to the 815 MAES and initial duty in England. Because of illness, Carlson was sent back to the US before the end of the war, but not before celebrating with members of her squadron in France on the day that Paris was liberated.

Ethel (lower right) with members of her squadron.
(Author’s private collection)

What struck me on meeting Ethel was her infectious smile, which I had remembered from photos taken in World War II. Ethel was easy to interview. She was very spontaneous with a bubbly personality, and, as in my interview with Jo Nabors, we could have talked for hours. But we talked only for about two hours on tape. Our break for dinner was a long one, but fortunately Ethel shared my enthusiasm for finishing the interview that night. While Ethel had a lot of information to share, she actually had little to say about her actual flying experiences. She was, she recalled, too busy having fun and getting into trouble, and she didn’t do a lot of flying. Her tour of duty overseas was cut short because of a medical condition that required her own evacuation as a patient back to the US before the end of the war. Ethel died in 1998 at age 77.

 

To listen to my interview with Ethel Cerasale, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011345

Interviewed 7 May 1986, Satellite Beach, FL
Learn more about my interview with Ethel on the Blog for 10 Jan 2016.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 26 Apr 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Josephine (Jo) Malito Nabors (1920–2015)
812 MAES, Pacific

Jo (Josephine) NABORS née Malito (Saint Elizabeth Hospital School of Nursing, Youngstown, Ohio, 1941) stayed on as a staff nurse at Saint Elizabeth’s Hospital after graduation. Having written to the Army Nurse Corps about joining, she heard nothing until the end of that year, and she entered the military right after Pearl Harbor was attacked. Jo had dreamed of being an Army flight nurse before the program even existed, never thinking that war might be declared. Her first assignment was at Keesler Field in Biloxi, Mississippi. After a year and a half on station, Jo signed up for flight nurse training in hopes of going to Europe; her orders for Bowman Field, Kentucky came through in the summer of 1943 for the class that graduated on 1 October 1943. Her 812 MAES was sent to the Pacific, however, with Elizabeth Pukas as chief nurse. Jo married immediately after graduation and flew under her married name, Nabors. Her new husband, also in the military, was stationed stateside throughout the war.


Jo Nabors featured in Honolulu newspaper clipping. (AFHRA)

Jo’s was my second interview out of state. She met me at the airport, then took me to my motel where I interviewed her at her request, rather than drive us to the small town where she lived. Stylish, very friendly, and with a strong mothering instinct toward me, Jo was very articulate and talked easily. At the end of the interview, she let me know how much she’d enjoyed our visit, in part because I’d put her immediately at ease when I wasn’t afraid to talk about myself and to answer her questions. That, she said, made her more comfortable chatting about her own experiences as a flight nurse in World War II. Jo died in 2016 at age 95.

 

To listen to my interview with Jo Nabors, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011354

Interviewed 1 May 1986, Girard, OH
Learn more about my interview with Jo on the Blog for 20 Dec 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 4 Apr 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Anonymous (1912–2010)
812 MAES, Pacific

The flight nurse who requested anonymity graduated from a school of nursing in the Great Lakes Region in 1937 and worked in general nursing, private duty, a doctor’s clinic, anesthesia, and obstetrical nursing before entering the Army in 1942. Like many of her Army nurse colleagues, she volunteered for every assignment posted, including the opportunity to attend the flight nurse course at Bowman Field, KY from which she graduated 1 October 1943. Assigned to the 812 MAES, she traveled with her squadron to air evacuation duty in the Pacific. She died in 2010.

Interviewed 30 Apr 1986
Learn more about my interview with “Anon” on the Blog for 22 Nov 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 14 Mar 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Helena Ilic Tynan (1920–2010)
801 MAES, Pacific

Helena Tynan née ILIC (Lenox Hill School of Nursing, New York City, 1942) chose nursing because she wanted to be a flight attendant for Pan American Airlines. But while she was still in nurses training, war was declared. Because the airlines ceased hiring nurses, after earning her nursing diploma in 1942 Ilic entered the Army through the Red Cross Reserve in March 1943. She was assigned initially to the Don Ce-Sar, a St. Petersburg, Florida hotel that recently had been converted into a military hospital. Duty at MacDill Field in Tampa, Florida followed. Two months later Helena saw a notice on the bulletin board about flight nursing, signed up immediately, and about four or five months later went to Bowman Field. Now she could fly as a military nurse instead of a civilian one. She graduated from the flight nurse course on 26 November 1943. Helena joined Lucy Wilson, Lee Holtz, and Adele Edmunds in the 801 MAES, initially assigned in Hawaii and flying air evacuation missions in the Pacific.

Helena Ilic on R&R in Australia. (USAF Photo)

Warm, friendly, and personable, Helena had so much to share about her flight nurse experiences that she sort of flitted from topic to topic. Thinking I might have provided too much guidance in my previous interview and thus stifled what Clara Murphy might have said otherwise, I let Helena take the lead in this interview and offered only minimal guidance when she needed reassurance that she was remembering useful information. Helena’s experiences revealed a resourceful, compassionate nurse who always made sure her patients were well taken care of and well fed on her air evac missions. She was “true blue”, she said, always scrounging for whatever would make her patients more comfortable. Helena died in 2010 at age 89.

To listen to my interview with Helena Tynan, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011359


Interviewed 26 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Helena on the Blog for 1 Nov 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 22 Feb 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Clara Morrey Murphy (1918–2015)
802 MAES, North Africa

Clara Murphy née MORREY (Saint Joseph’s Hospital School of Nursing, Hancock, Michigan, 1939) worked in civil service at a US Marine hospital in Detroit before entering the Army in March 1942. She already knew she wanted to be a flight nurse. Her first assignment was at Selfridge Field in Michigan where she worked until orders came through for Bowman Field, Kentucky nine months later as part of the initial cadre of flight nurses in the 802 MAES. Flight nursing was still “experimental”, with no formal training program yet implemented. On Christmas Day 1942, before the first class for flight nurses had begun, but after some rudimentary training, Morrey’s squadron deployed for North Africa to provide air evacuation support for the Tunisian Campaign. She attended the flight nurse course, which had moved to the School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Field in San Antonio, Texas, in 1945 after returning from overseas duty.

Clara Morrey (USAF Photo)

Gracious and friendly, Clara was more reserved than the women whom I had interviewed previously. But since her squadron was the first to travel overseas for air evac duty, Clara truly had launched the role of wartime flight nursing, and I knew she would have valuable memories to relate. Initially hesitant to talk on tape, Clara soon agreed, so most of our interview was recorded, but she seemed uncertain of what to say about her experiences as a flight nurse during the war. To ease her mind, I briefly explained the types of questions I would ask. I learned toward the end of our interview that Clara had written several pages of notes about coping to help her remember what she wanted to share with me. Unknown to me, our interview was on her wedding anniversary. We socialized for some time after the interview, which had gotten off to a late start, but since Clara and her husband had a party to attend that night, I left before overstaying my welcome. Clara died on 10 June 2013 at age 94.

To listen to my interview with Clara Murphy, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011353

Interviewed 19 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Clara on the Blog for 10 Oct 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 2 Feb 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Elizabeth Pukas (1907–2004)
Chief Nurse, 812 MAES, Pacific

Elizabeth PUKAS (Battle Creek College Hospital School of Nursing, Michigan, 1929) began her nursing career on night duty in the emergency admitting ward of New Haven General Hospital, in Connecticut, followed by work in New York City. When Pearl Harbor was attacked, Pukas had six months left on her twelve-month contract as a nurse with the Corps of Engineers in Antigua, where Coolidge Field was under construction. She finished out her contract and returned to her New York City job, where recruiters were seeking nurses for military service. Pukas agreed to join contingent on an assignment as a flight nurse. She was sent initially to a hospital in Atlantic City as head nurse of the communicable disease ward and immediately submitted her application for flight nurse training. When six months had passed without word on the assignment, Pukas’s patience had run out. She took the train to Washington, DC to meet with Colonel Nellie Close, chief nurse of the Army Air Forces, and learned that her request had been granted. A short time afterward she was packed and on her way to Bowman Field. She graduated from the flight nurse course on 2 July 1943. Pukas was chief nurse of the 812 MAES sent to the Pacific, initially to Hawaii, for air evacuation duty.

Elizabeth was my first out-of-state flight nurse interview. Welcoming and considerate, she met me at the airport with a hug and a luggage carrier on wheels – both much appreciated after my long trip. And after our interview, Elizabeth served as tour guide on a driving tour of the area before returning me to the airport. Fiercely independent and strong-willed, Elizabeth, like Grace Wichtendahl and Lucy Jopling, was chief nurse of her squadron and came across as a leader with high aspirations for herself and for the flight nurses in her squadron. Elizabeth, who earned a doctorate in psychology after the war, came across as very intelligent, articulate, well read, and well informed on past and current events. She showed pride in what she was able to accomplish as chief nurse during the war, a role that extended to off-duty hours when she acted as “surrogate mother” to her nurses, creating an enjoyable home environment and superintending activities surrounding the weddings of some of her girls. Like Grace, Elizabeth kept in touch with the nurses in her squadron and became a surrogate great-grandmother over the years. And, like Alice Krieble and Lee Holtz, she continued her military service and retired as a lieutenant colonel in the US Air Force. Elizabeth died on 11 August 2004 at age 97.

To listen to my interview with Elizabeth Pukas, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011355

Interviewed 9 April 1986, Walnut Creek, California
Learn more about my interview with Elizabeth on the Blog for 20 Sep 2015.

To be continued