World War II Army Flight Nurses – 16 May 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Ethel Cerasale née CARLSON (1921–1998)
815 MAES, Europe

When Ethel Cerasale née CARLSON (Englewood Hospital School of Nursing, Chicago, 1942) saw the Army nurse who came to her nursing school to recruit nurses for the military, the “gorgeous … absolutely the most beautiful” uniform made an immediate impression on her. Carlson already knew she wanted to be a flight nurse, and she heard that if she applied for military service through the Red Cross Reserve, they would help her find the type of duty she wanted. She graduated from nursing school in 1942, gave the Red Cross her application in February 1943, joined the Army, and two months later was sent to Jefferson Barracks, an Army post near St. Louis. She was selected for flight nurse training at Bowman Field, KY and graduated from the course on 21 January 1944 with assignment to the 815 MAES and initial duty in England. Because of illness, Carlson was sent back to the US before the end of the war, but not before celebrating with members of her squadron in France on the day that Paris was liberated.

Ethel (lower right) with members of her squadron.
(Author’s private collection)

What struck me on meeting Ethel was her infectious smile, which I had remembered from photos taken in World War II. Ethel was easy to interview. She was very spontaneous with a bubbly personality, and, as in my interview with Jo Nabors, we could have talked for hours. But we talked only for about two hours on tape. Our break for dinner was a long one, but fortunately Ethel shared my enthusiasm for finishing the interview that night. While Ethel had a lot of information to share, she actually had little to say about her actual flying experiences. She was, she recalled, too busy having fun and getting into trouble, and she didn’t do a lot of flying. Her tour of duty overseas was cut short because of a medical condition that required her own evacuation as a patient back to the US before the end of the war. Ethel died in 1998 at age 77.

 

To listen to my interview with Ethel Cerasale, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011345

Interviewed 7 May 1986, Satellite Beach, FL
Learn more about my interview with Ethel on the Blog for 10 Jan 2016.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 26 Apr 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Josephine (Jo) Malito Nabors (1920–2015)
812 MAES, Pacific

Jo (Josephine) NABORS née Malito (Saint Elizabeth Hospital School of Nursing, Youngstown, Ohio, 1941) stayed on as a staff nurse at Saint Elizabeth’s Hospital after graduation. Having written to the Army Nurse Corps about joining, she heard nothing until the end of that year, and she entered the military right after Pearl Harbor was attacked. Jo had dreamed of being an Army flight nurse before the program even existed, never thinking that war might be declared. Her first assignment was at Keesler Field in Biloxi, Mississippi. After a year and a half on station, Jo signed up for flight nurse training in hopes of going to Europe; her orders for Bowman Field, Kentucky came through in the summer of 1943 for the class that graduated on 1 October 1943. Her 812 MAES was sent to the Pacific, however, with Elizabeth Pukas as chief nurse. Jo married immediately after graduation and flew under her married name, Nabors. Her new husband, also in the military, was stationed stateside throughout the war.


Jo Nabors featured in Honolulu newspaper clipping. (AFHRA)

Jo’s was my second interview out of state. She met me at the airport, then took me to my motel where I interviewed her at her request, rather than drive us to the small town where she lived. Stylish, very friendly, and with a strong mothering instinct toward me, Jo was very articulate and talked easily. At the end of the interview, she let me know how much she’d enjoyed our visit, in part because I’d put her immediately at ease when I wasn’t afraid to talk about myself and to answer her questions. That, she said, made her more comfortable chatting about her own experiences as a flight nurse in World War II. Jo died in 2016 at age 95.

 

To listen to my interview with Jo Nabors, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011354

Interviewed 1 May 1986, Girard, OH
Learn more about my interview with Jo on the Blog for 20 Dec 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 4 Apr 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

 

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Anonymous (1912–2010)
812 MAES, Pacific

The flight nurse who requested anonymity graduated from a school of nursing in the Great Lakes Region in 1937 and worked in general nursing, private duty, a doctor’s clinic, anesthesia, and obstetrical nursing before entering the Army in 1942. Like many of her Army nurse colleagues, she volunteered for every assignment posted, including the opportunity to attend the flight nurse course at Bowman Field, KY from which she graduated 1 October 1943. Assigned to the 812 MAES, she traveled with her squadron to air evacuation duty in the Pacific. She died in 2010.

Interviewed 30 Apr 1986
Learn more about my interview with “Anon” on the Blog for 22 Nov 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 14 Mar 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Helena Ilic Tynan (1920–2010)
801 MAES, Pacific

Helena Tynan née ILIC (Lenox Hill School of Nursing, New York City, 1942) chose nursing because she wanted to be a flight attendant for Pan American Airlines. But while she was still in nurses training, war was declared. Because the airlines ceased hiring nurses, after earning her nursing diploma in 1942 Ilic entered the Army through the Red Cross Reserve in March 1943. She was assigned initially to the Don Ce-Sar, a St. Petersburg, Florida hotel that recently had been converted into a military hospital. Duty at MacDill Field in Tampa, Florida followed. Two months later Helena saw a notice on the bulletin board about flight nursing, signed up immediately, and about four or five months later went to Bowman Field. Now she could fly as a military nurse instead of a civilian one. She graduated from the flight nurse course on 26 November 1943. Helena joined Lucy Wilson, Lee Holtz, and Adele Edmunds in the 801 MAES, initially assigned in Hawaii and flying air evacuation missions in the Pacific.

Helena Ilic on R&R in Australia. (USAF Photo)

Warm, friendly, and personable, Helena had so much to share about her flight nurse experiences that she sort of flitted from topic to topic. Thinking I might have provided too much guidance in my previous interview and thus stifled what Clara Murphy might have said otherwise, I let Helena take the lead in this interview and offered only minimal guidance when she needed reassurance that she was remembering useful information. Helena’s experiences revealed a resourceful, compassionate nurse who always made sure her patients were well taken care of and well fed on her air evac missions. She was “true blue”, she said, always scrounging for whatever would make her patients more comfortable. Helena died in 2010 at age 89.

To listen to my interview with Helena Tynan, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011359


Interviewed 26 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Helena on the Blog for 1 Nov 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 22 Feb 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Clara Morrey Murphy (1918–2015)
802 MAES, North Africa

Clara Murphy née MORREY (Saint Joseph’s Hospital School of Nursing, Hancock, Michigan, 1939) worked in civil service at a US Marine hospital in Detroit before entering the Army in March 1942. She already knew she wanted to be a flight nurse. Her first assignment was at Selfridge Field in Michigan where she worked until orders came through for Bowman Field, Kentucky nine months later as part of the initial cadre of flight nurses in the 802 MAES. Flight nursing was still “experimental”, with no formal training program yet implemented. On Christmas Day 1942, before the first class for flight nurses had begun, but after some rudimentary training, Morrey’s squadron deployed for North Africa to provide air evacuation support for the Tunisian Campaign. She attended the flight nurse course, which had moved to the School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Field in San Antonio, Texas, in 1945 after returning from overseas duty.

Clara Morrey (USAF Photo)

Gracious and friendly, Clara was more reserved than the women whom I had interviewed previously. But since her squadron was the first to travel overseas for air evac duty, Clara truly had launched the role of wartime flight nursing, and I knew she would have valuable memories to relate. Initially hesitant to talk on tape, Clara soon agreed, so most of our interview was recorded, but she seemed uncertain of what to say about her experiences as a flight nurse during the war. To ease her mind, I briefly explained the types of questions I would ask. I learned toward the end of our interview that Clara had written several pages of notes about coping to help her remember what she wanted to share with me. Unknown to me, our interview was on her wedding anniversary. We socialized for some time after the interview, which had gotten off to a late start, but since Clara and her husband had a party to attend that night, I left before overstaying my welcome. Clara died on 10 June 2013 at age 94.

To listen to my interview with Clara Murphy, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011353

Interviewed 19 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Clara on the Blog for 10 Oct 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 2 Feb 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Elizabeth Pukas (1907–2004)
Chief Nurse, 812 MAES, Pacific

Elizabeth PUKAS (Battle Creek College Hospital School of Nursing, Michigan, 1929) began her nursing career on night duty in the emergency admitting ward of New Haven General Hospital, in Connecticut, followed by work in New York City. When Pearl Harbor was attacked, Pukas had six months left on her twelve-month contract as a nurse with the Corps of Engineers in Antigua, where Coolidge Field was under construction. She finished out her contract and returned to her New York City job, where recruiters were seeking nurses for military service. Pukas agreed to join contingent on an assignment as a flight nurse. She was sent initially to a hospital in Atlantic City as head nurse of the communicable disease ward and immediately submitted her application for flight nurse training. When six months had passed without word on the assignment, Pukas’s patience had run out. She took the train to Washington, DC to meet with Colonel Nellie Close, chief nurse of the Army Air Forces, and learned that her request had been granted. A short time afterward she was packed and on her way to Bowman Field. She graduated from the flight nurse course on 2 July 1943. Pukas was chief nurse of the 812 MAES sent to the Pacific, initially to Hawaii, for air evacuation duty.

Elizabeth was my first out-of-state flight nurse interview. Welcoming and considerate, she met me at the airport with a hug and a luggage carrier on wheels – both much appreciated after my long trip. And after our interview, Elizabeth served as tour guide on a driving tour of the area before returning me to the airport. Fiercely independent and strong-willed, Elizabeth, like Grace Wichtendahl and Lucy Jopling, was chief nurse of her squadron and came across as a leader with high aspirations for herself and for the flight nurses in her squadron. Elizabeth, who earned a doctorate in psychology after the war, came across as very intelligent, articulate, well read, and well informed on past and current events. She showed pride in what she was able to accomplish as chief nurse during the war, a role that extended to off-duty hours when she acted as “surrogate mother” to her nurses, creating an enjoyable home environment and superintending activities surrounding the weddings of some of her girls. Like Grace, Elizabeth kept in touch with the nurses in her squadron and became a surrogate great-grandmother over the years. And, like Alice Krieble and Lee Holtz, she continued her military service and retired as a lieutenant colonel in the US Air Force. Elizabeth died on 11 August 2004 at age 97.

To listen to my interview with Elizabeth Pukas, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011355

Interviewed 9 April 1986, Walnut Creek, California
Learn more about my interview with Elizabeth on the Blog for 20 Sep 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 12 Jan 2020

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Ivalee (Lee) Holtz, 1916–1992
801 MAES, Pacific

Lee (Ivalee) HOLTZ (University of Texas School of Nursing, Galveston, 1942) entered the military in 1942 after Pearl Harbor was attacked, with the intention of being a flight nurse. Arriving at her first duty assignment at Hammer Field in Fresno, California, she applied for flight nurse training immediately and worked as a psychiatric nurse for a year before her orders for Bowman Field came through. She graduated from the flight nurse course on 26 November 1943. Holtz was assigned to the 801 MAES with duty assignment in the Pacific; her squadron replaced the original members of that squadron who were rotating back to the United States in 1944.

Lee (second from right) in front of flight nurse quarters on Biak.
(Author’s private collection)

After relying on written notes for my first three interviews, I was delighted when Lee agreed to talk on tape. Friendly and easygoing, Lee clearly enjoyed her work as a flight nurse during the war and shared fond memories of many experiences. She had learned not to let the inconveniences of wartime living upset her and to make the most of what she had to work with as far as patient care and personal comfort. Once I realized that the tape was running and I needn’t take notes, I sat back and enjoyed the interview with an obvious enthusiasm for what Lee was sharing about her time as a flight nurse. I learned that an interview could be both informative and enjoyable. Like Alice Krieble, Lee stayed in the military after her assignment as a flight nurse had ended. She retired as a lieutenant colonel in the US Air Force and died in 1992 at age 75.

To listen to my interview with Lee Holtz, click on the link:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/80011350

Interviewed 4 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Lee on the Blog for 30 Aug 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 22 Dec 2019

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Lucy Wilson Jopling (1916–2000)
Chief Nurse, 801 MAES, Pacific

Lucy Jopling née WILSON (Parkland Hospital School of Nursing, Dallas, TX, 1939) had planned to be a flight attendant after nurses training, but when her dad had a heart attack, she returned home to Big Sandy, TX instead. When she heard someone say that it’s the women who would help win the war, Lucy joined the Army. An assignment in the Philippines, where she and her nurse colleagues evacuated their patients to Bataan and then to Corregidor, and her own evacuation from Corregidor on a submarine, determined her future military course of action. Flight nursing, Lucy decided, was the only way she knew to return to the Philippines to bring the POWs home. After graduating from the flight nurse course at Bowman Field on 26 November 1943, Lucy was made chief nurse of the 801 MAES and was sent with her squadron to the Pacific, initially to New Guinea but their island hopping took her eventually back to the Philippines.

Lucy Wilson. (USAF Photo)

Lucy was working on her book Warrior in White (Watercress Press, 1990), which she described as a family history with focus on her years as an Army nurse, when she agreed to let me interview her about coping with war. As chief nurse of her squadron, Lucy, like Grace Wichtendahl, had a different perspective about her work than did other flight nurses whom I interviewed. Intense, spunky, strong-willed, courageous, she also already had wartime experience, as an Army nurse on Corregidor, that defined her experience later as a flight nurse in an air evac squadron working its way an island at a time toward the Philippines before war’s end. With 26 other refugees, many of them Army nurses, Lucy had been evacuated by submarine out of Corregidor before the troops surrendered, and she was determined to return to help evacuate the American POWs from the Japanese camps. From Lucy’s interview I learned to allow plenty of time for interviews, for at her suggestion we extended our conversation over lunch at a nearby fast-food restaurant. The sharing and socializing were mutually enjoyable and a fitting close to the interview. Lucy died on Christmas Day 2000 at age 84.

Interviewed 4 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Lucy on the Blog for 8 Aug 2015.

To be continued

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 1 Dec 2019

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II. I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Alice Krieble (1912–1999)
818 MAES, Europe

Alice KRIEBLE (Indianapolis City Hospital School of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1940) worked as an emergency room evening supervisor after completing her nurses training. When the day supervisor left, Krieble was in charge of the department. She felt that opportunity gave her ample opportunity and special knowledge beneficial to the service, for she had wanted to work in a field hospital. It was, Krieble said, the best job she ever had. But, as she continued, “it didn’t turn out that way”. She felt that if the men had to go to war, “I can do my little part as a nurse. The young airmen don’t want to go, either.” She entered the Army on 1 January 1943 with an initial assignment in a Miami Beach hotel converted into a hospital. Dissatisfied with the paperwork and “policing” duty of convalescent patients that her job entailed, she applied for flight nurse training, was accepted, and graduated from the flight nurse course at Bowman Field on 11 March 1944 with assignment to the 818 MAES for duty in England.

Alice Krieble (second from left on second row) with flight nurses of her squadron.
(USAF Photo)

A delightful woman who laughed easily, Alice hadn’t wanted to be interviewed, she said – she had been interviewed so much about her World War II experiences that it had gotten old. But, she admitted after our interview, she hadn’t minded talking to me – what she really didn’t like was talking to large groups of women. From Alice, who needed very little prompting, I learned to sit back and let her take the lead once I’d asked some background questions. Like Grace before her, Alice did not let me tape the interview, but my written notes revealed many ways in which Alice coped with her colleagues and the daily challenges of air evac duty in wartime. Alice died on 21 March 1999 at age 86 after retiring as a lieutenant colonel in the US Air Force.

Interviewed 3 April 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Alice on the Blog for 20 July 2015.

To be continued

 

 

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 10 Nov 2019

In Memoriam
World War II Army Flight Nurses

Jenevieve (Jenny) Boyle Silk, who died in June 2017, was the last living of the 25 World War II US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed in 1986 for what became Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War I (Kent State University Press, 2013). I clearly remember each of my interviews with these remarkable women and still can picture them and hear their voices when I think of them.

Twenty of these interviews are now digitized and available as audio recordings on the Imperial War Museum website. Access the interviews here:

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/search?query=judith+barger&filters%5BwebCategory%5D%5BSound%5D=on&pageSize=&pageSize=

My short remembrances are in the order in which I interviewed these former flight nurses.

 

Grace Dunnam Wichtendahl (1917–1990)
Chief Nurse, 806 MAES, Europe

Grace Wichtendahl née DUNNAM (Levi Memorial Hospital School of Nursing, Hot Springs, Arkansas, 1939) had thought about being a Navy nurse but did not have the five years required work experience, so she joined the Army instead. An assignment to the Philippines was cancelled so that Grace could transfer to an Army Air Forces base and attend the second class of the flight nurse course from which she graduated on 26 March 1943. Grace was appointed chief nurse of the 806 MAES, the first air evac squadron to arrive in Europe in preparation for D-Day. Assigned initially in England, the flight nurses were kept busy honing their skills on the ground in what Grace remembered as “plane-loading, plane-loading, plane-loading” and “marching, marching, marching” until their cross-channel air evac missions began after D-Day. Two highlights of Grace’s wartime assignment were tea with the King and Queen of England, and her first trip to Omaha Beach. Of this trip Grace remarked that everyone has a few moments in their life when they prove themselves. This was her moment.

Grace Dunnam (second from left) with flight nurses of her squadron.
(USAF Photo)

Charming and gracious, Grace was the first Army flight nurse whom I interviewed. From Grace I learned that while my research questions constructed to help elicit how the flight nurses coped with war could guide the conversation, they could not dictate it. And that I would do best to let my interviewee choose what she wanted to share with me within the context of her experiences as a flight nurse in World War II. Ways of coping would become evident without having to address the topic directly. Grace did not let me tape the interview, but my written notes provided useful insight into the life of a flight nurse in Europe during the war and even captured Grace’s personality on paper, if not on tape. From her I learned about flight nursing from the perspective of a chief nurse responsible for the 24 other flight nurses in her squadron. Grace was the first of my interviewees to die, on 16 December 1990, at age 72.

Interviewed 29 March 1986, San Antonio, TX
Learn more about my interview with Grace in the Blog for 26 Jun 2015.

To be continued