Music in The Girl’s Own Paper – 6 May 17

Instruments and Instrumentalists
in The Girl’s Own Paper

Part Two: The Organ

Although not a music journal, The Girl’s Own Paper (TGOP), published in London by the Religious Tract Society beginning on 3 January 1880, clearly considered music a worthy topic, which readers encountered in music scores, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, illustrations and replies to musical correspondents. Music in The Girl’s Own Paper: An Annotated Catalogue, 1880 – 1910, lists the many musical references found in the magazine.

During TGOP’s first decade, ‘how to’ primers on playing musical instruments appeared, from singing a song in Volume 1 to playing the zither in Volume 10. Piano, violin, organ, harmonium, harp, guitar, concertina, mandolin, banjo and xylophone rounded out the list. Of all the primers, only those for singing, pianoforte and violin appeared more than once, suggesting that these were the preferred forms of music making to which TGOP readers should – and did – aspire. Unlike banjo playing, the focus of the previous blog, organ playing was encouraged because of its usefulness in houses of worship.

John Stainer, organist of Saint Paul’s Cathedral and organ professor at the National Training School for Music, set the tone for making music on that instrument when he told readers of TGOP in ‘How to Play the Organ’, simply to ‘do it’. [Volume 1, p. 328] * His technical approach to instruction may have been off-putting to some readers, however. After guiding them through the perils of reaching an organ in an imaginary church loft, he introduces them to ‘four rows of keys, one over the other, a row of foot-keys or pedals below them, sundry little iron levers, called composition pedals, and fifty stops, twenty-five on each side’. [pp. 328–29] He then explains the meaning behind the names and numbers on these stop-handles regarding compass, pitch and tone. Only after becoming acquainted with the stops and manuals is the imaginary organist permitted to take a seat on the bench and begin trying the organ.

Readers wanting a less complicated instrument to play may have been discouraged by King Hall’s ‘How to Play the Harmonium’, which followed in the same annual volume of the magazine. ‘I dare say you, my kind reader, will be able to recall without much difficulty the disappointment, and perhaps disgust, with which you have risen from the harmonium after attempting to perform some simple piece of music for the first time,’ the author writes. [Volume 1, p. 472] Hall admits that this reaction is normal, for the harmonium is not an easy instrument to learn and may initially seem refractory and arbitrary; even the organ, with its complicated construction, is more straightforward in its challenges, he contends. He then draws on organ construction to explain construction of the harmonium and its stops, pitches and tones. But the author ends with a reassuring ‘Do not be disheartened, dear reader, a little perseverance is all that is necessary to enable you to overcome the difficulties which perhaps at first appear almost insurmountable.’ [p. 473]

TGOP already had organists among its readers, some of whom played the harmonium, before Stainer’s and Hall’s primers appeared in the magazine. Poppy, A Village Organist and Mary all had inquired about the organ and received replies in the correspondence columns; replies to M.A.B., Marian and Sweet Seventeen followed in the magazine’s first year. [Volume 1]

Most correspondents apparently asked sensible questions to which the magazine’s editor responded in like manner. Correspondent Marigold, however, must have been an exception. The editor, who was known on occasion to have a bit of fun at the correspondent’s expense, wrote: ‘MARIGOLD wishes to know “if a boy of twenty can learn to play an American organ?” Why not? What is the matter with this somewhat “elderly” boy? Has he lost all his teeth, or his hair? What prevents his learning to perform on either the hurdy-gurdy or the French horn, unless the tips of his fingers were frost-bitten? Foolish Marigold, those chilblains of yours must have affected your head.’ [Volume 6, p. 655]

Correspondent Scotia’s request could not be granted. ‘We cannot give you lessons in playing the harmonium,’ the editor wrote; he referred her to Hall’s article in Volume 1. [Volume 8] Correspondents Judie, Norah and Birdie were referred to the London Organ School and International College of Music for lessons; A Quaver was given information about the Royal College of Organists. [Volumes 5, 15, 16, 22]

That TGOP expected to have organists among its readers is evident from the help the magazine offered them in choosing repertoire for the instrument. Beginning in Volume 9 through Volume 19, TGOP included what it considered suitable pieces for American organ or harmonium among its printed music scores, listed below.

Volume 9
Rêverie (J.W. Hinton) (harmonium or American organ)

Volume 12
Allegretto Giojoso (Myles B. Foster) (pianoforte or American organ)
Andante Pastorale (Myles B. Foster) (pianoforte or American organ)

Volume 13
Crusaders’ March (Myles B. Foster) (harmonium or American organ)
Elegy (Myles B. Foster) (harmonium or American organ)
Meditation (Myles B. Foster) (harmonium or American organ)

Volume 14
Supplication (Myles B. Foster) (harmonium or American organ)

Volume 17
Postlude (Myles B. Foster) (pianoforte or American organ)

Volume 19
Adagio ma non Troppo (Myles B. Foster) (pianoforte or American organ)
Allegro con Moto Agitato (Myles B. Foster) (pianoforte or American organ)
Chorale (Myles B. Foster) (pianoforte or American organ)

The magazine’s Notices of New Music column, which appeared under slight title variations, included short reviews of organ music that its readers might try out; a young woman ‘At the Organ’, shown below, illustrates a Volume 9 column.

‘Notices of New Music’, The Girl’s Own Paper, Volume 9, page 177.
(Lutterworth Press)

Some of the magazine’s fictional heroines played the organ, beginning with May Goldworthy in Ann Beale’s ‘The Queen o’ the May’, serialized in 27 chapters in Volume 2. At age six, motherless Madeline (May) Goldworthy is sent from London to live with her great-grandparents in the coal-mining district of Wales. Musical from an early age, May later takes organ lessons, sings in a choral competition at the Crystal Palace and uses her musical talent to help support her family. In ‘May Goldworthy’, the four-chapter sequel to the story in Volume 3, the heroine, who has become a professional concert singer in London, returns to her Welsh village as new bride and wife of cousin Meredith and resumes her role among family and friends, which includes singing and playing harmonium for the benefit of others.

Correspondent Iresene’s gracious letter to the editor in Volume 2 likely inquiring about transferring her keyboard skills from harmonium to organ, introduced a misconception that was promulgated in music journals contemporary with TGOP – that organ playing could be injurious to a female player’s health. The editor warned: ‘We think that if you play the harmonium you would soon learn the organ stops; but the playing with the pedals requires a good deal of practice and is trying to the back. To many women it would be very injurious.’ [p. 160] Correspondents Cecil Burn and Mildred Daisy, Rob Roy and Lady Organist were given similar replies. The activity looked strenuous, but the magazine’s answer must not have satisfied its readers, who continued to ask the same question. In Volume 17 on a page of ‘Replies to Often-asked Questions’, the magazine’s answer to ‘Is Organ-playing bad for Girls?’ reflected a change for the better in its thinking on the matter: ‘Organ playing is not injurious to either sex, indeed it is a healthy though fatiguing occupation. It exercises the muscles of the hands and renders them delicate and precise. The movements of the legs in working the pedals are natural ones, being almost identical to those of walking.’ [p. 512]

TGOP worked organ playing into its articles on self-improvement. ‘Just Out’ printed in the magazine’s first year of publication encourages musical girls to practice piano diligently once they have left school, for some day they might ‘be required to play the organ in church, the harmonium at meetings, to accompany friends in part or solo singing, and at all times you will be able to give a great deal of pleasure to those around you who are fond of music’. [Volume 2, p. 775] J.P. Mears’ ‘How to Improve One’s Education’, which appeared about a year later, gives recommendations for practising on piano and on harmonium. [Volume 2]

In 1891, correspondent Annie Findburgh asked the editor of TGOP what was the ‘usual amount of salary for an organist’. She was told that salary, which could range from £20 upwards, was based not on the amount of work done, but rather on the wealth and generosity of a congregation or parish, and in answer to what must have been another question, was told, ‘We never heard of a home being supplied.’ The editor continued: ‘You have formed very grand ideas about the worth of such an appointment.’ [Volume 13, p. 16]

‘Pimpernel’, an organist from Plumstead, won third prize in ‘Our Competition for Professional Girls’ sponsored by TGOP in 1897. A graduate of the Royal Academy of Music, ‘Pimpernel’ trained as a singer but could not get enough engagements, so she teaches music and plays the organ for church instead. Her essay is found in Volume 18.

‘Pimpernel’ was paid for her services, but many of her sisters on the organ bench were not. In ‘The Amateur Church Organist’, The Hon. Victoria Grosvenor urges readers with musical talent and leisure to qualify themselves as amateur organists for churches in agricultural and suburban parishes unable to pay a professional organist. [Volume 8] Ruth Lamb’s fictional ‘Only a Girl-Wife’, serialized in 25 chapters in Volume 7, had remarked on this type of ministry. After-dinner music at the Crawford’s house contrasts two types of singers. Grace Steyne, the rector’s daughter, is far behind the ‘girl-wife’ hostess Ida in brilliancy and style but has a fine voice that she uses ‘with true musical taste’, not attempting anything beyond her ability. Grace’s music making is a labour of love – she plays the organ at church and trains the village choir, ‘not a very easy task when scarcely any of the members knew their notes so as to read the music’. [p. 366]

Correspondent Isa, who wrote to the editor in 1884, exemplified the selfless service that TGOP encouraged in its readers. He responded: ‘We thank you sincerely for the kind testimony you give to the spiritual usefulness of this paper, and your wishes for still further blessing on our work. May your own be prospered also – your acting as organist for your church as a free offering to God’s service, and your Sunday-school teaching.‘ [Volume 5, p. 240] Correspondent ‘Bride of Triermain’, a harmonium player, likely took on more than she could handle, judging from the editor’s reply to her letter in Volume 3: ‘We advise your consulting the rector on the subject of your inefficiency as his assistant in playing the harmonium. Tell him you are anxious to improve, and need some lessons; and let such a suggestion as that of your receiving them from his daughter emanate from him or her, not from you.’ [p. 286]

Fictional organists in TGOP served as role models for the magazine’s readers who were organists. Ivy Gardiner, in ‘The Organist’s Daughter’ in Volume 14, takes over her father’s organist duties when his health fails. Confident in the role, she also meets with the parents of his piano pupils to encourage continued lessons under her tutelage. In Ada M. Trotter’s ‘Marsh Marigolds’, serialized in 25 chapters in Volume 16, Ritchie Marphell, pictured below, takes over her father’s church organist duties when his vision fails. Only 16 years old, she has trouble maintaining order during rehearsals when cantankerous male choir members challenge her ability to direct them. Ritchie’s rector defends the young organist against the assaults of her enemies. ‘Oh, how good you are!” she tells him after a particularly trying evening. [p. 65] In Sarah Doudney’s ‘The Angel’s Gift’ in Volume 22, Avice Rayne, who accompanies on the organ a trio of young men with the ‘angel’s gift’ of song on the organ, reminds them gently ‘that a divine gift should be used only for divine ends’. [p. 146]

Ada M. Trotter, ‘Marsh Marigolds’, The Girl’s Own Paper, Volume 16, p. 65.
(Lutterworth Press)

In Eglanton Thorne’s ‘Midst Granite Hills: The Story of a Dartmoor Holiday’ in Volume 12, Grace Erith has given up her music governess position, to nurse her brother back to health following his time at university. An admirer offers a cottage in Dartmoor for his convalescence; in return, Grace serves as organist at the village church. Madeline Stuart in ‘Music Hath Charms’, by A. Mabel Culverwell in the same volume, has been taking lessons from the parish organist since age 13. She has to think about her livelihood, for the four Stuart siblings are orphans and must make their own ways in life. Providentially, the parish organist’s untimely arm injury puts Madeline on the organ bench as his substitute for the Christmas season, leading to a position as a music governess. [Volume 12]

Like Ivy, an organist’s daughter, Beatrice Vaughan in M.M. Pollard’s ‘The Organist’s Niece’ in the Snowdrifts extra Christmas number for Volume 6 takes over her uncle’s organist duties when he falls ill. In ‘Acquired Abroad’ by Louisa Emily Dobree in the same extra Christmas number, Ellice Creswell learns that honesty is the best policy. To qualify for a morning governess position to support her blind mother and herself, Ellice is tempted to claim that her French has been acquired abroad, when in fact she has only visited Paris. After seeking her mother’s counsel, Ellice declines the position, then takes solace on the organ bench of her village church. The rector, in need of an organist, hears Ellice playing and, after learning of her troubles, offers her the position.

For Nessie Cartwright and her friends in ‘Noël; or, Earned and Unearned’, a story in the Christmas Roses extra issue for Volume 3 by Grace Stebbing, the lesson is about charity. When a church offers an organist post to Nessie, who needs a paying job, her rich friend cannot understand why Nessie would choose work over her friend’s generosity. The story reinforces middle-class Victorian values: when in financial need, women should earn money by suitable work rather than accept charity, however well intended. In ‘Miss Mignonette’ by E.M. Hordle, a short story in the same extra Christmas issue, the eponymous heroine, who is alone in the world, teaches music and plays organ at Wychley Church.

In ’Miss Pringle’s Pearls’ by Mrs G. Linnaeus Banks in Volume 9, Aunt Phillis Penelope Pringle substitutes as organist at Shepperley Church, while in La Petite’s ‘A Disguised Blessing’ in Maidenhair, the extra summer number for Volume 13, Damaris Calendar, Hazelcopse’s new schoolmistress, takes on the organist duties on Sundays and forms a choir from her musical scholars and older parishioners.

Reginald Horton and Alec Hood both are in love with organists. Reginald, a farmer’s son in ‘A Love Out of Tune’ by J.F. Rowbotham, leaves home to pursue a career as a pianist. After a rocky start, his eventual success is a hollow victory when his father dies suddenly, greatly in debt. After promising to marry Reginald once he had made his name in music, Mildred Vane, the rector’s daughter and an organist, marries someone else. [Volume 17] Alec, in E. Tissington Tatlow’s ‘The Chapel by the Sea’, is more fortunate in love. Hearing ‘the sweet sound of an organ in a church close by’ makes Alec Hood feel sad, for he loves the organist, Laura Tressilian, and is afraid his past will make it impossible to win her. [Volume 28, p. 776] An act of bravery for which a medal is earned, as well as his recently deceased father’s estate, leads to Alec’s marriage to Laura in the Chapel by the Sea.

Most of the magazine’s organists were fictional; TGOP rarely mentioned living women organists. In ‘The Girl’s Outlook; or, What Is There to Talk About?’ by James and Nanette Mason, a self-improvement series in Volume 16, three friends in a remote village, all in their early twenties, meet at least monthly to discuss what they have read, confining their conversation to current topics and events, including musical ones. At one meeting they discuss the life of British organist Elizabeth Stirling (1819–1895) who had died recently. Stirling had made a name for herself as a publicized recitalist particularly of the works of Bach, as a church musician in a City of London church and as a composer of organ music. **

In a portrait of Her Majesty the Queen of Romania reprinted in Volume 26 of the magazine, the Queen is playing a large pipe organ. Only one article featured a living woman organist: Emily Lucas, a clergyman’s daughter who was blind since an early age, earned distinction as a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists. In her 1904 autobiographical account ‘A Blind Girl Organist’ in Volume 25, Lucas writes about the challenges and rewards of training a choir and playing for services at Saint Andrew Norwood when visually impaired.

Like the banjo, the organ disappeared from the pages of TGOP after the brief sketch of Lucas. An organist was featured in Volume 31, but the spotlight was on Sir Frederick Bridge, then organist of Westminster Abbey, as author. Women organists still were an item in Britain, but TGOP no longer featured them in fiction, and the magazine had ceased to print the Answers to Correspondents column with replies to the organists among its readers. More information about Britain’s women organists is found in Elizabeth Stirling and the Musical Life of Female Organists in Nineteenth-Century England, especially Chapter 2 ‘Ladies Not Eligible?’.

* Complete citations may be found in Judith Barger, Music in The Girl’s Own Paper: An Annotated Catalogue, 1880 – 1910 (Routledge, 2017).

** See Judith Barger, Elizabeth Stirling and the Musical Life of Female Organists in Nineteenth-Century England (Ashgate, 2007).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Music in The Girl’s Own Paper – 8 Apr 2017

Instruments and Instrumentalists in
The Girl’s Own Paper

Part One: The Banjo

Although not a music journal, The Girl’s Own Paper (TGOP), published in London by the Religious Tract Society beginning on 3 January 1880, clearly considered music a worthy topic, which readers encountered in music scores, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, illustrations and replies to musical correspondents. Music in The Girl’s Own Paper: An Annotated Catalogue, 1880 – 1910 lists the many musical references found in the magazine.

During TGOP’s first decade, ‘how to’ primers on playing musical instruments appeared, from singing a song in Volume 1 to playing the zither in Volume 10. Piano, violin, organ, harmonium, harp, guitar, concertina, mandolin, banjo and xylophone rounded out the list. Of all the primers, only those for singing, pianoforte and violin appeared more than once, suggesting that these were the preferred forms of music making to which TGOP readers should or did aspire. This blog and the next focus on two very different instruments the banjo and the organ to show how TGOP chose to educate and entertain its readers about them.

That readers were interested in the banjo is evident in the magazine’s replies to correspondents’ questions about the instrument. Before the primer on how to play the banjo appeared in 1889, three correspondents had asked about the instrument, though their actual questions were not printed. The magazine’s editor told Maria Orford, who likely was choosing between the banjo and the mandolin, that the latter would be more suitable, because the banjo ‘is scarcely a nice instrument for a girl’. [Volume 6] * W.F.C. received a more neutral reply – she could apply at any music shop for banjo music. [Volume 6] Dinah, whose means were limited, hoped to find a banjo for ten shillings; the editor hoped a music shop might could help her. [Volume 8]

Just because the primer ‘How to Play the Banjo’ by Frank Mott Harrison appeared in Volume 10 does not mean that TGOP gave its stamp of approval to the instrument. To Harrison the instrument was essentially for amusement rather than serious playing, with limited music of a calibre higher than ‘marches, breakdowns, and jigs’. [p. 134] He did not discourage young women from taking up the banjo, however, if their tastes matched the repertoire available for the instrument. The magazine’s editor, however, did. For him, it was a matter of the banjo’s suitability.

When in 1892 correspondent Grateful Reader sought the editor’s advice about choosing an instrument among the banjo, guitar, concertina and organ-accordion, she was told, ‘Neither the banjo nor the guitar is by any means suitable for leading sacred music at a mission meeting. You might as well play the bones like a Christy Minstrel! A concertina or organ-accordion would be very suitable for such a purpose, and more easily learnt.’ [Volume 13] By 1895, however, the editor had rethought the instrument’s suitability and simply advised Helen of Troy, ‘We see no reason why you should not learn the banjo, provided your mother approves.’ [Volume 17]

Over the years, several correspondents – Martha, Madcap, Flora, Edythe, A.A.C., Would-Be Musician, Kerry – asked questions about the banjo and its music. The instrument’s popularity among readers was reflected in the illustration ‘The Banjo Enthusiast’ printed on the Answers to Correspondents page of 20 February 1892, shown below. [Volume 13] It must have taken some moxie for correspondent Wee-One from British Guinea to make her unknown request in 1894. The editor replied: ‘We have not got any kind of banjo, nor can we give you a practical demonstration of what you want to know; so you had better go to a shop for musical instruments and see for yourself. We are sorry we cannot assist you.’ [Volume 15] Nor could the editor assist correspondent Snowdrop a few weekly issues later, whose questions about prices of instruments, including the banjo, and costs for lessons could not be answered in the magazine. He advised her, ‘You should attend to your spelling, which is of more consequence than accomplishments.’ [Volume 15]

‘A Banjo Enthusiast’,The Girl’s Own Paper Vol. 13, p. 336 (Lutterworth Press)

The banjo makes occasional cameo appearances in TGOP fiction. In ‘Nobody’s Holiday; or, An August and September Spent in Good Company’, in the 1889 extra summer issue Rosemary, Hester Grey hears a ‘pandemonium of discords’ in the music making of lodgers, one of whom is learning to play the banjo. [Volume 10, pp. 42–4] Camilla Blake, in ‘A Chameleon’ by Alice Macdonald, finds the piano ‘awfully slow’, drops it and takes up the banjo instead. [Volume 13, p. 247] In ‘Our Café Chantant’ by M.F.T. in the Extra Summer Part of 1901, Rose Amberly agrees to sing and play the banjo for a variety entertainment organized to assist Silas Burns whose cottage burned down. [Volume 22]

In Sarah Doudney’s 1902 ‘Silent Strings’, the banjo player is a young man. When their father dies, the four Wilmer siblings have to split up the family. Brother Drew’s solution to raise their spirits is to sing a tune with a rousing chorus, which he accompanies on his banjo. After this last song, however, Drew leaves the banjo behind. The instrument’s silent strings are a metaphor for the silent strings in many lives that are, as sister Kate muses, ‘full of music that has never been called out of them’. [Volume 23, pp. 30–31]

Like Drew, who left his banjo behind when he left his siblings, after ‘Silent Strings’ appeared, TGOP left the banjo behind. Content about the organ and organists, which was more conspicuous in the magazine, had a longer life and is the subject of the next blog.

* Complete citations may be found in Judith Barger, Music in The Girl’s Own Paper: An Annotated Catalogue, 1880 – 1910 (Routledge, 2017).

 

USAF Flight Nursing – 18 Feb 2017

USAF Flight Nurse Photo Album

When stationed as a flight nurse with the 9th Aeromedical Evacuation Group at Clark Air Base, Philippines, 1973–75, I put together a hand-printed photo album illustrating a “typical” day of air evac duty. The photos, all but one of which I took myself, were taken on several different missions in 1975 and do not represent an actual flight plan.

In this typed version of the original text, which I printed in block capitals, I have divided the content into three sections across three blogs: PRE-FLIGHT, INFLIGHT, and POST-FLIGHT. Page numbers refer to the original photo album.

POST-FLIGHT

Page 18

The mission is over. An urgent patient off-loaded at Yokota Air Base, Japan is met by a helicopter for immediate transfer to Yokosuka Naval Hospital nearby. This procedure is known as a “dust-off.”

HELICOPTER AWAITS PATIENT FROM C-9A

The med techs wait on crew transportation at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa.

WAITING ON CREW TRANSPORTATION

Page 19

Flight mechanic SSgt Nelson is post-flighting the C-9A at Kadena Air Base.

FLIGHT MECHANIC SSGT NELSON

Crew chief Amn Wojienowski completes his post-flight check of the C-9A at Kadena Air Base.

CREW CHIEF AMN WOJIENOWSKI

Page 20

Remaining overnight at Yokota Air Base, Japan, members of the crew depart base on an adventure in search of supper. Waiting at the train station off base are SSgt Everingham, Capt Northcutt, Capt Barger, and SSgt Winstead.

AIR EVAC CREW AT FUSSA TRAIN STATION, JAPAN

Supper this night is a Big Mac, order of fries, and a hot apple pie at McDonald’s in Tachikawa, Japan. That’s Sgt Gimerek with his mouth full, SSgt Winstead, SSgt Everingham, and Capt Northcutt.

AIR EVAC CREW AT MCDONALD’S IN TACHIKAWA, JAPAN

“… WE HAVE ENJOYED SERVING YOU AND HOPE THAT YOUR FLIGHT HAS BEEN A PLEASANT ONE AND THAT YOU HAVE A SPEEDY RECOVERY.”

 

USAF Flight Nursing – 28 Jan 2017

USAF Flight Nurse Photo Album

When stationed as a flight nurse with the 9th Aeromedical Evacuation Group at Clark Air Base, Philippines, 1973–75, I put together a hand-printed photo album illustrating a “typical” day of air evac duty. The photos, all but one of which I took myself, were taken on several different missions in 1975 and do not represent an actual flight plan.

In this typed version of the original text, which I printed in block capitals, I have divided the content into three sections across three blogs: PRE-FLIGHT, INFLIGHT, and POST-FLIGHT. Page numbers refer to the original photo album.

INFLIGHT

Page 11

And we’re off, flying to wherever patient requirements demand. It could be to tan Son Nhut Air Base, Vietnam …

FLIGHT LINE, TAN SON NHUT AIR BASE, VIETNAM

… or a flight taking us over Mount Fuji and into Yokota Air Base, Japan.

MOUNT FUJI FROM WINDOW OF C-9A

Page 12

Kunsan Air Base, Korea might be our next stop …

FLIGHT LINE, KUNSAN AIR BASE, KOREA

… or NKP Air Base, Thailand. Wherever we go, there are patients waiting.

FLIGHT LINE, NKP AIR BASE, THAILAND

Page 13

Sgt Girshovich, second med tech for the mission, deploys the litter ramp at an en-route stop at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Iwakuni, Japan. SSgt Harris acts as spotter to insure the area is clear.

DEPLOYING LITTER RAMP FROM INSIDE C-9A

The ramp is fully deployed and ready for use by litter bearers.

C-9A LITTER RAMP DEPLOYED

Page 14

A litter patient is deplaned onto the waiting ambus at Yokota Air Base, Japan.

AMBUS READY TO RECEIVE LITTER PATIENTS FROM C-9A

A fire truck meets the C-9A at every stop. This one is at MCAS, Iwakuni. We refuel with patients on board, and a fire truck always must be standing by.

FIRE TRUCK STANDING BY FOR PATIENT LOADING ON C-9A

Page 15

Lt Holland, MCD, is receiving a patient report from the air evac clerk at one of the en-route stops.

LT HOLLAND AT MEDICAL CARE AREA ON C-9A

In flight, Lt Holland and Sgt Lloyd could be discussing a patient’s condition or any number of subjects.

LT HOLLAND AND SGT LLOYD AT MCD STATION

Page 16

“IF YOU NEED ANYTHING PLEASE LET US KNOW. WE HOPE THAT YOU HAVE A COMFORTABLE FLIGHT ….” Once the Fasten Seat Belt sign is turned off, patient care continues. We pass out pillows and blankets, magazines, and juice, coffee, or milk. Litter patients are given backrests to elevate their head and shoulders for comfort. Here you see TSgt Higuera, the third tech, and SSgt Spradlin, the flight mechanic.

CREW PROVIDING PATIENT CARE ON C-9A

As part of her check-ride, Lt O’Malley is demonstrating to the flight examiner how to put a casualty life vest onto a litter patient. The “patient” is flight mechanic SSgt Stanke.

CASUALTY LIFE VEST DEMONSTRATION

Page 17

SSgt Harris, flying as third med tech, is taking an inventory of all supplies and equipment that we carry in the cabin of the C-9A. He’s sitting at the MCD desk. His primary job as third tech is to on-load and off-load patient baggage. Thus SSgt Harris has given the third med tech the nickname “Redcap”.

SSGT HARRIS TAKING INVENTORY AT MCD STATION

SSgt Harris again, this time flying in the senior tech position. The senior tech is the chef on the mission and is the person who cooks and serves patient meals.

SSGT HARRIS IN AFT GALLEY PREPARING MEALS

To be continued.

USAF Flight Nursing – 8 Jan 2017

USAF Flight Nurse Photo Album

When stationed as a flight nurse with the 9th Aeromedical Evacuation Group at Clark Air Base, Philippines, 1973–75, I put together a hand-printed photo album illustrating a “typical” day of air evac duty. The photos, all but one of which I took myself, were taken on several different missions in 1975 and do not represent an actual flight plan.

In this typed version of the original text, which I printed in block capitals, I have divided the content into three sections across three blogs: PRE-FLIGHT, INFLIGHT, and POST-FLIGHT. Page numbers refer to the original photo album.

Page 1

PRE-FLIGHT

ME IN LITTER RAMP DOORWAY OF C-9A ON FLIGHT LINE AT CLARK AIR BASE

“GOOD MORNING LADIES AND GENTLEMEN AND WELCOME ABOARD THE C-9A. YOUR AIRCRAFT COMMANDER TODAY IS ____, AND I AM CAPT BARGER, YOUR MEDICAL CREW DIRECTOR …. “

Page 2

The phone in my room rings at 0430. “Good morning, Capt Barger. I’m alerting you for your flight today.”

MY CAR AT THE SQUADRON BUILDING

The Air Evac Control Center at 9th Group is where patients are called in for movement on a routine [scheduled] or alert [unscheduled, but urgent to save life, limb, or eyesight] mission and where air evac missions are planned, coordinated, and monitored. This is where the day begins.

Page 3

The C-9A Nightingale, produced by McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Corporation, is the military version of the commercial DC-9. There are 4 C-9A’s at Clark, and these aircraft cover an 85-million square mile area and fly into some 260 airfields in 9 different countries. The C-9A cruises at 500 mph at an altitude of around 30,000 feet. The C-9A is capable of carrying a total of 40 ambulatory patients, 40 litter patients, or a combination of both. Each routine mission carries a medical crew of 2 nurses and 3 medical technicians. An alert  mission carries 1 nurse and 2 med techs. Our routine missions take us to airfields in the Philippines, Taiwan, Okinawa, Korea, Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam.

C-9A ON FLIGHT LINE AT CLARK AIR BASE

Page 4

The basic flight crew on the C-9A includes the pilot, the co-pilot, and the flight mechanic. Here Lt Johnson, pilot, explains something to the co-pilot, Lt Gray.

PILOT AND COPILOT IN C-9A COCKPIT

SSgt Winstead, a flight mechanic, has just given the pilots the go-ahead to start engines. He’s now boarding the C-9A prior to take-off. The flight mechanic is also responsible for refueling the C-9A.

FLIGHT MECHANIC SSGT WINSTEAD WALKING ONTO THE C-9A

Page 5

Please join me on a grand tour of the cabin of the C-9A. As you walk onto the aircraft through the forward entrance door and face aft [to the rear], to your left is the special care area. This is our intensive care unit, where we put our sickest patients. It also can be used for isolation patients. Special features of the special care area include ultraviolet lights and exhaust fan to kill micro-organisms and control odors, a curtain to close off the area, 3 lights with self-coiling extension cords that clip onto the litter to facilitate patient care, extra oxygen and suction outlets and 60-cycle and 28V DC electrical outlets, and dim-to-bright ceiling lights.

SPECIAL CARE AREA OF C-9A

In this picture, Kenneth, 5 weeks old, is in the top incubator; the bottom incubator is being returned to Clark for maintenance. The medical crew director (MCD) of the mission is giving the cruise briefing: “LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, OUR NEXT STOP WILL BE FUKUOKA, JAPAN, AND OUR ENROUTE TIME WILL BE ….”

Page 6

Across from the special care area is the medical service area.

MEDICAL SERVICE AREA

This area includes a foot-operated scrub sink with liquid soap dispenser, and a medicine cabinet complete with stock drugs. In the top cabinet are IV tubing and blood recipient sets. In the blue cabinet are IV solutions, IV tray, and distilled water, and in the drawers below are needles and syringes. Cabinets below store medical supplies — OB packs, disposable masks, bedpans, catheterization kit, and irrigation tray.

Aft of the special care area is the medical crew director (MCD) station.

MEDICAL CREW DIRECTOR STATION

The MCD station consists of a writing desk and lamp, a communications and light-control panel, and temperature, therapeutic oxygen, and vacuum system gauges, a medical records drawer, bookshelf, and storage area for more medical supplies — oxygen masks, emergency drugs, suction catheters, bite-sticks, bulb syringe, and dressing supplies.

Page 7

Aft of the litter ramp door is the central storage compartment.

CENTRAL STORAGE COMPARTMENT

This area provides storage space for linens, Ambu bag [trademark name of resuscitator bag for artificial respiration], Bird respirator [trademark name for mechanical ventilator], and miscellaneous supplies. The orange bundles you can see underneath are 2 of the 3 20-man life rafts that we carry on all missions.

This picture shows the main cabin area, configured on this trip to accommodate 38 ambulatory patients. All patient seats face aft. That’s Sgt Novicio, the senior med tech, sitting in his crew seat, which is attached to the aft door in the tail section.

MAIN CABIN AREA

Page 8

In the tail section of the cabin is the aft galley.

AFT GALLEY

The forward galley just aft of the cockpit has a medical refrigerator. The aft galley is used to prepare patient meals. Here are found the refrigerator and freezer, the oven that can cook 24 meals in about 30 minutes time, the coffee maker, and sink. The aft galley is the only place on the C-9A where one can get ice-cold or boiling-hot water. Just forward of the door is the senior tech’s control panel where he can make PA announcements, speak with the MCD or pilot via intercom, and turn cabin lights on and off. The MCD gives the pre-departure briefings; the senior tech gives the descent briefings.

Page 9

“… IF FOR ANY REASON THERE IS A MALFUNCTION IN CABIN PRESSURIZATION, COMPARTMENTS ABOVE EACH SEAT OR LITTER WILL AUTOMATICALLY OPEN, PRESENTING AN OXYGEN MASK. IMMEDIATELY EXTINGUISH YOUR CIGARETTE AND PULL THE MASK TO YOUR FACE, PLACE OVER YOUR NOSE AND MOUTH, AS DEMONSTRATED BY SSGT EVERINGHAM, AND BREATHE NORMALLY …”

SSGT EVERINGHAM DEMONSTRATES USE OF OXYGEN MASK

“… SGT NOVICIO WILL NOW DEMONSTRATE THE USE OF THE LIFE VEST. ON ONE SIDE OF THE VEST ARE INSTRUCTIONS TO PLACE THAT SIDE TOWARD YOUR BODY. DON THE VEST IN THE SAME MANNER AS A JACKET …”

SGT NOVICIO DEMONSTRATES USE OF LIFE VEST

Page 10

The blue ambus [ambulance-bus] brought the patients to the flight line. The fire truck stands by.

AMBUS AND FIRE TRUCK WAIT NEAR C-9A

Flight mechanic SSgt Knight is monitoring the start of engines for takeoff from Clark. We’re deploying to escape a typhoon on this day. That’s our squadron building in the background.

SSGT KNIGHT MONITORS START OF ENGINES

To be continued.

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 18 Dec 2016

Meet the former US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed for
Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

In 1986 as part of my research about flight nurse history and coping with war, I was privileged to interview 25 former US Army nurses about events of their flight nurse duty in World War II. Most of them are now deceased, but their stories live on in Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

The journal I kept of my time with each of them in 1986 when writing my dissertation offers a brief personal glimpse of these remarkable women. I am sharing edited versions of these journals, in the order in which the interviews took place. The actual interviews are in separate documents.

25th Interview

Frances Sandstrom Crabtree
816 MAES Europe
21 June 1986

My interview with Frances Crabtree was one of those unexpected surprises. When I arrived in Spokane, Washington to interview Hilda Chamberlain in her home, Hilda mentioned that her friend Frances, another World War II flight nurse living in Spokane, wanted to be interviewed for my study. Hilda was eager that I meet Frances and arranged for me to drive to Frances’s house some minutes away after our interview.

When I arrived at Frances’s house, I was met by Frances and her husband Roe and escorted into their house. The house was a surprise itself. It is an old home with an accumulation of old furniture, cut glass, even large dolls occupying some of the chairs in the living room and dining room. My eyes were attracted immediately to an antique pump organ and a baby grand piano in the living room. This was not, however, an occasion to play. Frances served coffee and chatted a great deal about her experiences. I eventually asked her directly whether she would like to be interviewed as part of my study, and she quickly and enthusiastically agreed.

I realized when I learned her maiden name that I had read an article about Frances in an Air Force magazine published during World War II. This made my interview with her even more exciting, since in my eyes she was a bit of a celebrity, having had her picture on the cover of the magazine as well as having been the subject of an article about flight nursing. According to Frances, however, her real claim to celebrity is that she was the first nurse to go into France after D-day (though Grace Dunnam of the 806 MAES had claimed the same distinction).

Actual flight nursing was not difficult, Frances said, but she remembered that as far as patient care, the flight nurses had little in the way of supplies and equipment with which to work. Frances once had a seriously injured patient, perhaps with a skull fracture, she said, whose only chance for survival was air evacuation to another hospital. She had no oxygen or IVs to give him and could only watch him. Realizing that oxygen could make the difference between life and death, she had the pilot divert the plane to an airfield where an ambulance was waiting with oxygen.

Frances recalled that during the war she encountered a comradeship not only with flight nurses in her squadron, but with other flight nurses and aircrews—all who had been through the war together—that could not have happened otherwise. She had high respect for the aircrews “that we flew with who brought us down safe and sound with our patients”—even occasionally on just one wheel.

Frances could have talked for hours, though she was a bit dependent on my questions to guide her in what experiences to share, but we eventually brought the interview to a close. Afterward, Frances said that she and her husband wanted to take me to dinner. I was pleased to be asked and enjoyed a casual meal at a Texas barbecue place. We chatted easily through dinner, and I was invited to return to their home to see their summer cabin on a lake in Idaho and to play the antique pump organ. They are a delightful couple, and it truly was a pleasant way to end the interviews for my dissertation.

One of Frances’s stories: Frances had flown with a load of patients from Scotland to New York. When she arrived at the hotel, staff of the Air Force magazine were on the lookout for someone to photograph for an article about flight nurses. A woman approached and asked Frances, “Are you a WAC?” Frances said, “Oh, no.” ‘What are you?” “I’m a flight nurse.” “Oh,” said the woman, “Just sit right there. Don’t leave.” And Frances said, “Don’t worry, lady. I can’t even get out of this chair.” She was waiting for some place to rest her head after flying all the way across from England. The memory made Frances laugh. The magazine staff waited until the next morning to do the photo shoot for “Flight Nurse” by Charlotte Knight, Air Force 27 (10) (October 1944): 28–30, 62.

Frances died in 2006.

frances

Cover girl Frances Sandstrom. (Author’s private collection)

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 20 Nov 2016

Meet the former US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed for
Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

In 1986 as part of my research about flight nurse history and coping with war, I was privileged to interview 25 former US Army nurses about events of their flight nurse duty in World War II. Most of them are now deceased, but their stories live on in Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

The journal I kept of my time with each of them in 1986 when writing my dissertation offers a brief personal glimpse of these remarkable women. I am sharing edited versions of these journals, in the order in which the interviews took place. The actual interviews are in separate documents.

24th Interview

Hilda Halverson Chamberlain
826 MAES Pacific
21 June 1986

I met with Hilda in her home in Spokane, Washington. For the first leg of my journey, from San Jose to Seattle, I was booked in First Class, and what a luxury awaited me! I was impressed not only with Alaska Airlines but with the state of Washington—“God’s Country” is a phrase that comes to mind. Again, a rental car awaited me, and what a pleasure it was to drive the brand new silver Mustang.

Hilda lives in an area of the city with hills, trees, and old homes. She was waiting on her porch when I arrived and invited me in warmly. I knew that she had had cataract surgery earlier that week, and I was concerned that it might not be a good time for me to visit, but she had assured me that she would be fine. Other than a patch over her eye, she showed no ill effects from the surgery.

After talking casually, I explained how the interview would progress. She got us each something to drink, and we sat at her dining table for the interview. Hilda did not have a lot to say, but she shared the experiences she had remembered with an enthusiasm that made the interview an easy one to conduct. She enjoyed the chance to reminisce, since she said that she hadn’t thought about or been asked about her wartime experiences in a long time.

Hilda remembered irregular flying hours — leaving in the middle of the night and flying 16 or 18 hours, deadheading to a location to pick up patients for air evacuation, and flying them to their destination. Sometimes the flight nurses had only an hour or two on the ground before catching the next flight; mostly, though, they remained overnight away from their home station before catching the next flight back. She learned to sleep “real good” on the floor of a plane when deadheading without patients. Hilda recalled feeling tired most of the time, in part because the flight nurses were on alert to go at a moment’s notice, and in part because she always was thinking what she could “do for the next person.”

Packages from home were always a welcome treat when overseas, but a Christmas box that arrived in July was a huge disappointment. Hilda’s sisters had sent her a cake and some cookies, but the thick icing turned out to be mildew. She had promised to treat her flying colleagues, but they had to make do with some canned meat the sisters had enclosed, not with sweets.

I was conscious of the time, because I didn’t want to tire Hilda out, especially since she’d had the surgery on her eye earlier in the week. When it seemed that Hilda had no more experiences ready to share, and that my questioning was not bringing out much additional information, I chose to end the interview.

Hilda told me about a friend of hers in Spokane who was also a World War II flight nurse. Hilda had mentioned my coming to this friend, and, according to Hilda, the friend wanted to talk with me. Hilda got directions on how to get to the friend’s house and then sent me on my way so that I would have the opportunity to talk with her friend that evening while I was still in Spokane. I didn’t know if another interview would actually materialize. This situation of the informant knowing someone else who she thought wanted to be interviewed and setting me up to interview this person had been tried once before but didn’t work—the first time, the woman denied ever having said she would like to be interviewed. But partly to please Hilda, and partly because I’ve not yet turned down the chance to get an additional interview, I wound up my visit with Hilda to pursue yet another interview in the city.

One of Hilda’s stories: Hilda remembers flying with patients on board from Leyte in the Philippines to Saipan where the Japanese had just raided the airfield. It had been raining, and the Hilda and her enlisted technician off-loaded the patients as quickly as possible. She continues, “And then I heard somebody say, ‘Where’s the nurse? Is the nurse all right?’” She was down in the mud trying to cover a young soldier’s head wound, because she didn’t want it to get dirty. She laughs about the teasing she got afterward when they said, “Oh, we’d have never found you!”

Hilda died in 1993.

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 16 Oct 2016

Meet the former US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed for
Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

In 1986 as part of my research about flight nurse history and coping with war, I was privileged to interview 25 former US Army nurses about events of their flight nurse duty in World War II. Most of them are now deceased, but their stories live on in Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

The journal I kept of my time with each of them in 1986 when writing my dissertation offers a brief personal glimpse of these remarkable women. I am sharing edited versions of these journals, in the order in which the interviews took place. The actual interviews are in separate documents.

23rd Interview

Adele Edmonds Daly
801 MAES Pacific
20 June 1986

I met with Adele Daly in her home in Palo Alto, California. I found myself less enthusiastic about this interview than I had been about other interviews. One reason, I know, is that Adele had some difficulty hearing and understanding me in phone calls to coordinate my visit. I thought that perhaps she had a hearing loss that would make an interview difficult. But in spite of my concern I decided to go ahead with the interview, since Adele sounded so enthusiastic about my study.

My flights were more tiring than usual from the physical exertion of carrying my bags across flight lines to planes and one leg of the trip with every seat filled, delays, and demanding passengers. That didn’t help my mood once I arrived in San Jose, nor did the traffic.

The trip to Palo Alto via rental car took only minutes; I had expected a much longer drive. When I arrived in Palo Alto, I called Adele, who had no trouble understanding me this time, and she encouraged me to come to her house right away, even though I had arrived much earlier than expected.

Adele was a very pleasant, warm, hospitable person whom I liked immediately and with whom I felt comfortable. I hadn’t yet eaten, and Adele fixed me a light lunch that I ate as we chatted casually and got to know each other better. I realized how wrong I had been to prejudge her unfavorably, and I was glad I hadn’t let my unfavorable impression keep me from making the trip.

Adele was not especially talkative, but she did talk easily as she shared experiences. She lacked some of the spontaneity of other women I’ve interviewed, but what experiences Adele did share, she covered in enough detail to give a good picture of her feelings and relevant actions.

About flight nurse training, for example, Adele said, that what the flight nurses learned at Bowman Field during their course had helped them to a certain extent, “but we never realized that we’d have so little to do with.” Her nurses training had taught her to improvise, an important skill for making do with less during the war.

Nor had Bowman Field prepared her for the reptiles and bugs overseas. Flight nurses often remained overnight in Bougainville when out on air evacuation flights, Adele remembered  with an “oooh!” and much laughter, because of the lizards and snakes and so many crawly things. “I don’t know how you can prepare yourself for something like that,” she said, “because I’d always been terrified of them.”

Like other woman I‘ve interviewed, Adele is a gracious individual with the special ability to make a person feel welcome and at home. It was a pleasant visit and a good interview.

One of Adele’s stories: Adele laughs about it now, but she remembers flight nurse training as “Very rugged. Very rugged! You knew that everything you participated in would make or break you.” The discipline and routine were quite different from what she had experienced before, even in her nurses training. “And bivouacking and marching and constantly being on the run to go to class or to do something. Your day was just terrifically full. You’d be exhausted at night.” She particularly recalled when the nurses had to maneuver the obstacle course under small arms fire. The flight nurses used to talk about those things and wonder how they could ever survive the actual war, “which we knew we were eventually going to be in when we finished.”

Adele died in 2005.

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 24 Sep 2016

Meet the former US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed for
Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

In 1986 as part of my research about flight nurse history and coping with war, I was privileged to interview 25 former US Army nurses about events of their flight nurse duty in World War II. Most of them are now deceased, but their stories live on in Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

The journal I kept of my time with each of them in 1986 when writing my dissertation offers a brief personal glimpse of these remarkable women. I am sharing edited versions of these journals, in the order in which the interviews took place. The actual interviews are in separate documents.

22nd Interview

Randy Rast Weinrich
803 MAES China-Burma-India
19 June 1986

I met with Randy Weinrich in her home in Hemet, California. I had flown from San Antonio to Palm Springs, and I had driven a rental car the 28 or so miles to Hemet, which is a small town that grew out of a farm community.

Randy is a very attractive woman, carefully groomed. She was casually dressed. She took me to her favorite spot in the house for our interview—a corner of the living room with adjoining windows that offer a magnificent view of the area from the Weinrich’s hilltop home. She offered me a glass of water, and we casually discussed a number of topics. Then lest the casual conversation fill the afternoon, I eventually introduced the “ground rules” of the interview itself—how long it might last and a general outline of the questions.

I’m afraid my expectations for this interview may have been a bit too high. I was so excited that I’d found a flight nurse who was assigned to the China-Burma-India Theater (CBI)—Randy was assigned in China most of her overseas tour—that I assumed she would have many interesting experiences to relate. I was a bit disappointed that she actually had relatively little information to share. Some of those experiences were very relevant to my study, however.

Three of the four flights in the squadron were based in Upper Assam, India, but Randy’s flight was assigned to China. The six nurses in Randy’s flight were scattered all over China; Randy was stationed at Kunming. In theory, the other nurses in China would bring patients to Kunming, from where Randy would then fly with the patients over the Hump. In reality, she says, there was not much flying.

During the interview Randy served coffee and sweets, and we chatted easily. But my overall impression was that perhaps neither of us knew quite what to expect from the other. It was, however, an afternoon well spent.

Some of Randy’s stories: Randy had a lot of funny things happen during her years as a flight nurse overseas. One time when she went to India, the flight nurses there were weaving a walkway from the tents to where the toilet facilities were. They named their walkway the “P-38 Runway.” When Randy got back to China, she wrote the nurses and asked them in her letter how the “P-38 Runway” was coming. That part was censored and cut out of her letter before the nurses received it. Randy talked about the closeness of the flight nurses in her squadron, who “seemed more like sisters to me than my own sisters, because wartime is different.” Everyone was a friend, not a stranger during war. She used as an example care packages sent from home, which “you wouldn’t think of consuming it by yourself—you passed it around.”

Randy died in 2005.

 

 

World War II Army Flight Nurses – 4 Sep 2016

Meet the former US Army flight nurses whom I interviewed for
Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

In 1986 as part of my research about flight nurse history and coping with war, I was privileged to interview 25 former US Army nurses about events of their flight nurse duty in World War II. Most of them are now deceased, but their stories live on in Beyond the Call of Duty: Army Flight Nursing in World War II.

The journal I kept of my time with each of them in 1986 when writing my dissertation offers a brief personal glimpse of these remarkable women. I am sharing edited versions of these journals, in the order in which the interviews took place. The actual interviews are in separate documents.

21st Interview

Jocie Huston
811 MAES Europe
18 June 1986

I met with Jocie in her apartment in San Antonio, Texas this afternoon. She is a tiny woman and small-boned. She had called me two nights before, because she was concerned that she could not find her flight records and therefore wouldn’t know the number of hours she flew, the number of patients she airlifted, and the specific towns and bases into which she flew. She thought perhaps I might not want to interview her after all. On the phone I reassured her that those specific details were not important, and that if she was willing, I would still like to interview her.

Jocie had placed some materials she still had from her flight nurse assignment on a table. But unlike most other women I’ve interviewed, she was not interested or eager for me to look at her photographs. So I did not get the opportunity to see her photo album, other than a few pictures that she pointed out to me.

Jocie’s memory was not too good for many details of her assignment as a flight nurse in World War II. I had realized from our two phone calls that it might not be, so I was prepared. It wasn’t that she was unwilling to share information, but simply that she couldn’t remember the information to share. What she did share was very helpful to the study, and my questions often helped her to remember other areas of her flight nurse experiences. Jocie did remember dates, places, and names, but she didn’t have too much to offer in the way of specific flights or patients.

As a member of the 811 MAES, Jocie was flying patients out of Prestwick, Scotland, usually to Newfoundland, but sometimes all the way to New York, when she heard about D-day. She was eager to get back to southern England from where she would fly across the English Channel to France, but her squadron still had a couple of weeks of duty in Scotland. Jocie did make it over to France not long afterward. She was in the air again on V-J day, on a cargo plane over Germany. Her first stop had no patients to on-load, but the plane diverted to pick up some American and British POWs at a nearby camp for return to England. It was a long day of flying, she said.

My interview with Jocie lasted under an hour. I didn’t want to tax her or make her feel uncomfortable by asking questions for which she might not have an answer. But in the time we did talk, Jocie contributed much important data on coping with war, so it was an afternoon well spent. While not gregarious, Jocie was very friendly and seemed to enjoy my visit to her home.

One of Jocie’s stories: Prior to one of her flights, the flight surgeon told Jocie, “Well, now, this boy’s jaw is wired together, and the weather is going to be bad going back. If he gets sick, you’re going to have to clip these wires.” Her stomach began to churn, because she’d never clipped wires before, and she didn’t know what might happen to the patient’s mouth. She remembered that as a flight nurse she was allowed to give morphine without a doctor’s orders if she thought it was needed. “So I thought, Well, I’ll just give you an eighth of a grain of morphine. I did, and the blessed little fellow slept all the way over, and everybody else on that plane got sick.” Jocie laughed as she recalled the incident.

Jocie died in 1995.